Basics: The Problem of universality and the UTE
The macroscopic « theories », or actually « laws », that govern the Reliability and the Science of Materials don’t answer two main requirements:
1) some do not have any microscopic theoretical foundations. The macroscopic predictions of those that have a basis always remain insufficient, unclear, or useless.
2) each of these laws is applied distinctly to a very specific case of material, loading or environment. They also lack universality in the application to the different branches of mechanics (flow, propagation and bifurcation of cracks, reliability, damage, creep, statistical distribution, etc.) in particular and to the other fields of physics in general (quantum mechanical, relativity, chemistry, biology, natural science, astronomy, etc.
The numerous « laws » that still proliferate best illustrate these « deficiencies ». The list is opened and therefore infinite because the enigmas remain total. These laws are made for the quantitative prediction but rarely for the qualitative explanation. The quantitative predictions use experimentation, simulation, numerical resolution and mathematical smoothing techniques. These approaches have a history background : the pragmatic industrial revolution that looks into the macroscopic world (example of « Strength of Material » science) to make « acceptable » predictions in order to construct the industrial machinery. The factor of security (or ignorance) has been decreasing progressively with the advanced of knowledge. NDT have made possible the Fracture Mechanic science. A science that go deeper into the small world where the mystery is hidden. Quantum Mechanics is the optimal place where to look provided that the approach is an abstract mathematical pure approach to understand and not « justify » the experiment with a clever built-up theory. The experimental approach comes from a blind who is obliged to touch (experiment) everything to « see » what is it. The reality of matter is well preserved in a forbidden horizon. We want some pure light that can see until this horizon. For this, only the abstract mathematical approaches have permitted breakthrough into the physical world. Maxwell, Einstein, Boltzman and Plank have deduced the reality with only paper and ink. All the elementary particles (electron, neutrinos, photons, mesons, kaons, quarks, hyperons, etc.) have been first discovered by the theory. The experiment will come (only) later on to validate the theory and therefore the pure thought. It becomes therefore indispensable to sometimes come back to the « the harmonic order » of a unified theory with the spirit of Newtonian gravitation.
The UTE proposed by the author in this survey, is a modest tentative that is only in its beginnings. The primary objective of this tentative is the requirement of universality in the purpose a unifying approach to the numerous laws and branches of the Science of Materials. The fundamental basis of this theory is the concept of causality and universal order. For this, seven laws of natural evolution are exposed. These laws show a new universal geometric constant L which govern the evolution process. The physical consequences of these laws in the domain of physics are presented.